Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1505880071iynus1505880071@mlla1505880071dba1505880071
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1505880071tm@ej1505880071arala1505880071
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1505880071sl@yl1505880071a1505880071
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071055la1505880071wal1505880071
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1505880071sv@ir1505880071asnaj1505880071
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1505880071iw@su1505880071ojdab1505880071
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1505880071ihpme1505880071m@oss1505880071irebk1505880071
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071irbma1505880071hbkp1505880071
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1505880071sgb@e1505880071kdorb1505880071m1505880071
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1505880071mat.c1505880071tne@n1505880071anahc1505880071ub1505880071
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1505880071otyal1505880071c.lia1505880071m@mah1505880071gninr1505880071uBnho1505880071J1505880071
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1505880071snm@i1505880071ac.oa1505880071iboah1505880071S1505880071
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1505880071umat@1505880071oolla1505880071hc.ba1505880071jar1505880071
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1505880071ke@ar1505880071dnahc1505880071.sgiv1505880071
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1505880071iamg@150588007172gna1505880071hci1505880071
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1505880071tatsa1505880071i@gna1505880071hchs1505880071
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1505880071tatsd1505880071aeher1505880071om@na1505880071mpahc1505880071.h1505880071
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1505880071aceud1505880071rup@1150588007121neh1505880071c1505880071
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1505880071simel1505880071o@sgn1505880071ehcmc1505880071
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1505880071ie@al1505880071lihcn1505880071ihcr1505880071
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1505880071tatsy1505880071arrum1505880071@ihse1505880071kitih1505880071cs1505880071
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1505880071tatsd1505880071ni@en1505880071arhco1505880071c.lih1505880071p1505880071
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1505880071ws@dr1505880071ofwar1505880071cme1505880071
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1505880071tu@al1505880071ahsma1505880071d-hsa1505880071karp1505880071
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1505880071mes@n1505880071ekedb1505880071
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1505880071maa@g1505880071ned.o1505880071atgne1505880071hz1505880071
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1505880071irref1505880071@edna1505880071phseD1505880071ragaS1505880071
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1505880071tatsp1505880071pa@hd1505880071htumr1505880071emod1505880071
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1505880071ywu@n1505880071audd1505880071
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1505880071su@tn1505880071opud.1505880071nayr1505880071
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1505880071io@du1505880071ryd.n1505880071ylira1505880071M1505880071
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1505880071SCE.L1505880071IAM@I1505880071HALEM1505880071
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1505880071cetnt1505880071@ywaS1505880071lEA1505880071
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1505880071ohay@15058800711inah1505880071afse_1505880071luosa1505880071r1505880071
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1505880071elytt1505880071u@orr1505880071azafd1505880071
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1505880071u.evi1505880071l@2az1505880071etrom1505880071f1505880071
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1505880071nu@lr1505880071nagin1505880071alf1505880071
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1505880071tu@gn1505880071unumo1505880071f-sui1505880071tangi1505880071
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1505880071niret1505880071tek@r1505880071etsof1505880071d1505880071
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1505880071ohay@1505880071gkuor1505880071afa1505880071
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1505880071nu.rg1505880071ne@af1505880071adeg.1505880071abad1505880071
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1505880071tt@ba1505880071rbehg1505880071.sord1505880071owet1505880071
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1505880071ke@sb1505880071big.d1505880071lanod1505880071
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1505880071foc@m1505880071zelaz1505880071nog1505880071
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1505880071vu@id1505880071imah.1505880071nesho1505880071m1505880071
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1505880071.uda@1505880071damma1505880071h.noo1505880071mam1505880071
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1505880071sp@tp1505880071uahjb1505880071
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1505880071ohay@1505880071irmih1505880071_y1505880071
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1505880071nuc.h1505880071cetyt1505880071ic@ni1505880071assoh1505880071a1505880071
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1505880071scc@u1505880071ohx1505880071
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1505880071naisi1505880071uol@n1505880071otsuo1505880071h.not1505880071lehs1505880071
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1505880071ozire1505880071v@yoh1505880071ayrra1505880071b1505880071
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1505880071tl@au1505880071hk1505880071
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1505880071sdn@g1505880071nauh.1505880071gniy1505880071
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1505880071sn@tn1505880071uhrc1505880071
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1505880071iw@re1505880071tnuH-1505880071DG1505880071
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1505880071acn@g1505880071neyhb1505880071c1505880071
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1505880071upui@1505880071notly1505880071hp1505880071
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1505880071moolb1505880071@miha1505880071rbig1505880071
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1505880071tm@ni1505880071wrilj1505880071
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1505880071ohay@15058800717002g1505880071ne_za1505880071waf1505880071
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1505880071sgb@y1505880071eltej1505880071s1505880071
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1505880071nu.ss1505880071enisu1505880071b@nos1505880071nhoja1505880071
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1505880071sb@un1505880071akr1505880071
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1505880071iamto1505880071h@aze1505880071r_k1505880071
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1505880071cimc@1505880071t2aya1505880071k1505880071
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1505880071nyaw.1505880071gne@r1505880071aktek1505880071
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1505880071.uda@1505880071inama1505880071rlawe1505880071k.hsi1505880071nam1505880071
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1505880071aceud1505880071rup@m1505880071iK.no1505880071oH-ea1505880071T1505880071
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1505880071mcu@h1505880071cok1505880071
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1505880071tatsa1505880071notya1505880071d@Sse1505880071jirk1505880071
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1505880071rh@ac1505880071ajluk1505880071o1505880071
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071khser1505880071kahc1505880071
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1505880071do@ra1505880071muks1505880071
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1505880071iho@l1505880071appur1505880071uk1505880071
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1505880071mhj@21505880071dnale1505880071
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1505880071sp@9l1505880071er1505880071
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1505880071oisle1505880071cxe@r1505880071ialce1505880071lj1505880071
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1505880071sp@821505880071lus1505880071
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1505880071cimc@1505880071s5eel1505880071
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1505880071maf@i1505880071l.oah1505880071c1505880071
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1505880071ce@JN1505880071NIL1505880071
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1505880071sp@re1505880071lihwt1505880071il.el1505880071ad1505880071
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071212xg1505880071uil1505880071
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1505880071iamg@150588007159uil1505880071gnep1505880071
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1505880071nu.ym1505880071@2uyl1505880071
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1505880071iw@ga1505880071m1505880071
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1505880071ura@i1505880071nam.m1505880071
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1505880071naisi1505880071uol@91505880071642mh1505880071g1505880071
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1505880071tatso1505880071laffu1505880071b@jso1505880071ryam1505880071
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1505880071su@dl1505880071anodc1505880071mnt1505880071
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1505880071ie@no1505880071tlemw1505880071d1505880071
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071ieazr1505880071im.he1505880071fuoko1505880071hs1505880071
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1505880071ihpme1505880071m@deh1505880071sromb1505880071
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1505880071ohay@1505880071nayyr1505880071m_S1505880071
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1505880071musj@1505880071yhpru1505880071m.l.a1505880071cisse1505880071j1505880071
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1505880071nre.d1505880071yhou@1505880071sckia1505880071n1505880071
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1505880071nserf1505880071usc@r1505880071aibma1505880071na1505880071
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1505880071.ooha1505880071y@ray1505880071yan_d1505880071nana1505880071
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1505880071letat1505880071slac.1505880071egnah1505880071cxe@n1505880071oslen1505880071s1505880071
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071hdnam1505880071uorin1505880071
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1505880071tm@ar1505880071ievil1505880071o1505880071
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1505880071mcu@n1505880071osill1505880071o1505880071
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1505880071tatsn1505880071t@eke1505880071ubeyn1505880071ol1505880071
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1505880071fpi@r1505880071olbap1505880071
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1505880071ozire1505880071v@sol1505880071uopos1505880071tuona1505880071p.eli1505880071sab1505880071
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071nivah1505880071bimaw1505880071s1505880071
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1505880071aceud1505880071rup@j1505880071anep1505880071
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1505880071udrup1505880071@hcis1505880071urep1505880071
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1505880071sv@ho1505880071riahp1505880071t1505880071
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071UYUHU1505880071Q1505880071
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1505880071sa@sa1505880071dajar1505880071
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1505880071is@ri1505880071nirah1505880071
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071bhtan1505880071maray1505880071ajiv1505880071
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1505880071e.wp@1505880071osard1505880071
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1505880071nuC.h1505880071ceTyt1505880071iC@in1505880071azarm1505880071
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071rakde1505880071rss1505880071
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1505880071fau@s1505880071dlony1505880071er.le1505880071ahcim1505880071
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1505880071otrel1505880071luf.e1505880071gnahc1505880071xe@no1505880071sborn1505880071
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1505880071iamg@15058800712130s1505880071regor1505880071m1505880071
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1505880071yb@ew1505880071or_el1505880071ad1505880071
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1505880071ekab@1505880071alas.1505880071acna1505880071
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1505880071tm@eu1505880071gresv1505880071a1505880071
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1505880071nserf1505880071usc@s1505880071ijala1505880071b1505880071
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1505880071iamg@15058800713801n1505880071hsm1505880071
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1505880071tatsd1505880071uolct1505880071s@hah1505880071sah1505880071
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1505880071sv@in1505880071abyeh1505880071se1505880071
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1505880071acn@s1505880071uabis1505880071um1505880071
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1505880071.ooha1505880071y@ala1505880071b_hgn1505880071is1505880071
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1505880071ohay@1505880071ytiel1505880071sha1505880071
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1505880071iamg@15058800719324t1505880071imaik1505880071nalos1505880071
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1505880071iw@jg1505880071nos1505880071
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071rotan1505880071egnos1505880071yy1505880071
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1505880071is@yu1505880071grewo1505880071p1505880071
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1505880071iho@s1505880071ureru1505880071s1505880071
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1505880071ohay@1505880071j_ire1505880071hat1505880071
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1505880071np@na1505880071tehzi1505880071l1505880071
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1505880071cetal1505880071@iraw1505880071ets1505880071
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1505880071acn@y1505880071astl1505880071
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1505880071hu@vs1505880071anauo1505880071zt1505880071
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1505880071mcu@r1505880071emluj1505880071
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1505880071sdn@a1505880071mrav.1505880071yima1505880071
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1505880071udrup1505880071@alea1505880071him1505880071
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1505880071rehtu1505880071osaig1505880071roeg@1505880071pordl1505880071awp1505880071
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1505880071iamg@1505880071notla1505880071w.mar1505880071ba.fo1505880071rP1505880071
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1505880071scc.l1505880071iam@o1505880071ahgna1505880071w1505880071
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1505880071mat@g1505880071nawJ1505880071
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1505880071e.tsu1505880071jn.li1505880071am@om1505880071gnail1505880071
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1505880071sp@sm1505880071rawmo1505880071t1505880071
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1505880071.ut.r1505880071gne@n1505880071oobw1505880071
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1505880071el@2s1505880071maill1505880071iwj1505880071
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1505880071.ut.r1505880071gne@n1505880071oobw1505880071
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1505880071nitne1505880071ligid1505880071@gnow1505880071a1505880071
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1505880071scc@u1505880071ws1505880071
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1505880071udrup1505880071@gnay1505880071b1505880071
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1505880071sdn@g1505880071nay.a1505880071ijim1505880071
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1505880071aceud1505880071rup@x1505880071gnay1505880071
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1505880071SHS@1150588007100yxf1505880071
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1505880071s-dae1505880071herom1505880071@uoy.1505880071uy1505880071
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1505880071musj@1505880071nauy.1505880071gnaih1505880071c-oap1505880071
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1505880071ba.su1505880071@gnah1505880071z.oai1505880071b1505880071
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1505880071retse1505880071wiruo1505880071ssim@1505880071uhzj1505880071
Missouri Western State University (MO)