Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1508390280iynus1508390280@mlla1508390280dba1508390280
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1508390280tm@ej1508390280arala1508390280
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1508390280sl@yl1508390280a1508390280
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280055la1508390280wal1508390280
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1508390280sv@ir1508390280asnaj1508390280
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1508390280iw@su1508390280ojdab1508390280
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1508390280ihpme1508390280m@oss1508390280irebk1508390280
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280irbma1508390280hbkp1508390280
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1508390280sgb@e1508390280kdorb1508390280m1508390280
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1508390280mat.c1508390280tne@n1508390280anahc1508390280ub1508390280
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1508390280otyal1508390280c.lia1508390280m@mah1508390280gninr1508390280uBnho1508390280J1508390280
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1508390280snm@i1508390280ac.oa1508390280iboah1508390280S1508390280
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1508390280umat@1508390280oolla1508390280hc.ba1508390280jar1508390280
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1508390280ke@ar1508390280dnahc1508390280.sgiv1508390280
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1508390280iamg@150839028072gna1508390280hci1508390280
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1508390280tatsa1508390280i@gna1508390280hchs1508390280
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1508390280tatsd1508390280aeher1508390280om@na1508390280mpahc1508390280.h1508390280
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1508390280aceud1508390280rup@1150839028021neh1508390280c1508390280
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1508390280simel1508390280o@sgn1508390280ehcmc1508390280
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1508390280ie@al1508390280lihcn1508390280ihcr1508390280
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1508390280tatsy1508390280arrum1508390280@ihse1508390280kitih1508390280cs1508390280
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1508390280tatsd1508390280ni@en1508390280arhco1508390280c.lih1508390280p1508390280
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1508390280ws@dr1508390280ofwar1508390280cme1508390280
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1508390280tu@al1508390280ahsma1508390280d-hsa1508390280karp1508390280
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1508390280mes@n1508390280ekedb1508390280
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1508390280maa@g1508390280ned.o1508390280atgne1508390280hz1508390280
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1508390280irref1508390280@edna1508390280phseD1508390280ragaS1508390280
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1508390280tatsp1508390280pa@hd1508390280htumr1508390280emod1508390280
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1508390280ywu@n1508390280audd1508390280
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1508390280su@tn1508390280opud.1508390280nayr1508390280
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1508390280io@du1508390280ryd.n1508390280ylira1508390280M1508390280
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1508390280SCE.L1508390280IAM@I1508390280HALEM1508390280
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1508390280cetnt1508390280@ywaS1508390280lEA1508390280
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1508390280ohay@15083902801inah1508390280afse_1508390280luosa1508390280r1508390280
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1508390280elytt1508390280u@orr1508390280azafd1508390280
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1508390280u.evi1508390280l@2az1508390280etrom1508390280f1508390280
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1508390280nu@lr1508390280nagin1508390280alf1508390280
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1508390280tu@gn1508390280unumo1508390280f-sui1508390280tangi1508390280
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1508390280niret1508390280tek@r1508390280etsof1508390280d1508390280
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1508390280ohay@1508390280gkuor1508390280afa1508390280
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1508390280nu.rg1508390280ne@af1508390280adeg.1508390280abad1508390280
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1508390280tt@ba1508390280rbehg1508390280.sord1508390280owet1508390280
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1508390280ke@sb1508390280big.d1508390280lanod1508390280
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1508390280foc@m1508390280zelaz1508390280nog1508390280
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1508390280vu@id1508390280imah.1508390280nesho1508390280m1508390280
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1508390280.uda@1508390280damma1508390280h.noo1508390280mam1508390280
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1508390280sp@tp1508390280uahjb1508390280
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1508390280ohay@1508390280irmih1508390280_y1508390280
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1508390280nuc.h1508390280cetyt1508390280ic@ni1508390280assoh1508390280a1508390280
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1508390280scc@u1508390280ohx1508390280
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1508390280naisi1508390280uol@n1508390280otsuo1508390280h.not1508390280lehs1508390280
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1508390280ozire1508390280v@yoh1508390280ayrra1508390280b1508390280
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1508390280tl@au1508390280hk1508390280
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1508390280sdn@g1508390280nauh.1508390280gniy1508390280
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1508390280sn@tn1508390280uhrc1508390280
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1508390280iw@re1508390280tnuH-1508390280DG1508390280
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1508390280acn@g1508390280neyhb1508390280c1508390280
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1508390280upui@1508390280notly1508390280hp1508390280
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1508390280moolb1508390280@miha1508390280rbig1508390280
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1508390280tm@ni1508390280wrilj1508390280
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1508390280ohay@15083902807002g1508390280ne_za1508390280waf1508390280
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1508390280sgb@y1508390280eltej1508390280s1508390280
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1508390280nu.ss1508390280enisu1508390280b@nos1508390280nhoja1508390280
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1508390280sb@un1508390280akr1508390280
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1508390280iamto1508390280h@aze1508390280r_k1508390280
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1508390280cimc@1508390280t2aya1508390280k1508390280
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1508390280nyaw.1508390280gne@r1508390280aktek1508390280
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1508390280.uda@1508390280inama1508390280rlawe1508390280k.hsi1508390280nam1508390280
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1508390280aceud1508390280rup@m1508390280iK.no1508390280oH-ea1508390280T1508390280
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1508390280mcu@h1508390280cok1508390280
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1508390280tatsa1508390280notya1508390280d@Sse1508390280jirk1508390280
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1508390280rh@ac1508390280ajluk1508390280o1508390280
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280khser1508390280kahc1508390280
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1508390280do@ra1508390280muks1508390280
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1508390280iho@l1508390280appur1508390280uk1508390280
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1508390280mhj@21508390280dnale1508390280
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1508390280sp@9l1508390280er1508390280
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1508390280oisle1508390280cxe@r1508390280ialce1508390280lj1508390280
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1508390280sp@821508390280lus1508390280
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1508390280cimc@1508390280s5eel1508390280
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1508390280maf@i1508390280l.oah1508390280c1508390280
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1508390280ce@JN1508390280NIL1508390280
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1508390280sp@re1508390280lihwt1508390280il.el1508390280ad1508390280
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280212xg1508390280uil1508390280
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1508390280iamg@150839028059uil1508390280gnep1508390280
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1508390280nu.ym1508390280@2uyl1508390280
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1508390280iw@ga1508390280m1508390280
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1508390280ura@i1508390280nam.m1508390280
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1508390280naisi1508390280uol@91508390280642mh1508390280g1508390280
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1508390280tatso1508390280laffu1508390280b@jso1508390280ryam1508390280
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1508390280su@dl1508390280anodc1508390280mnt1508390280
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1508390280ie@no1508390280tlemw1508390280d1508390280
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280ieazr1508390280im.he1508390280fuoko1508390280hs1508390280
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1508390280ihpme1508390280m@deh1508390280sromb1508390280
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1508390280ohay@1508390280nayyr1508390280m_S1508390280
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1508390280musj@1508390280yhpru1508390280m.l.a1508390280cisse1508390280j1508390280
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1508390280nre.d1508390280yhou@1508390280sckia1508390280n1508390280
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1508390280nserf1508390280usc@r1508390280aibma1508390280na1508390280
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1508390280.ooha1508390280y@ray1508390280yan_d1508390280nana1508390280
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1508390280letat1508390280slac.1508390280egnah1508390280cxe@n1508390280oslen1508390280s1508390280
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280hdnam1508390280uorin1508390280
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1508390280tm@ar1508390280ievil1508390280o1508390280
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1508390280mcu@n1508390280osill1508390280o1508390280
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1508390280tatsn1508390280t@eke1508390280ubeyn1508390280ol1508390280
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1508390280fpi@r1508390280olbap1508390280
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1508390280ozire1508390280v@sol1508390280uopos1508390280tuona1508390280p.eli1508390280sab1508390280
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280nivah1508390280bimaw1508390280s1508390280
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1508390280aceud1508390280rup@j1508390280anep1508390280
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1508390280udrup1508390280@hcis1508390280urep1508390280
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1508390280sv@ho1508390280riahp1508390280t1508390280
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280UYUHU1508390280Q1508390280
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1508390280sa@sa1508390280dajar1508390280
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1508390280is@ri1508390280nirah1508390280
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280bhtan1508390280maray1508390280ajiv1508390280
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1508390280e.wp@1508390280osard1508390280
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1508390280nuC.h1508390280ceTyt1508390280iC@in1508390280azarm1508390280
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280rakde1508390280rss1508390280
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1508390280fau@s1508390280dlony1508390280er.le1508390280ahcim1508390280
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1508390280otrel1508390280luf.e1508390280gnahc1508390280xe@no1508390280sborn1508390280
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1508390280iamg@15083902802130s1508390280regor1508390280m1508390280
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1508390280yb@ew1508390280or_el1508390280ad1508390280
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1508390280ekab@1508390280alas.1508390280acna1508390280
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1508390280tm@eu1508390280gresv1508390280a1508390280
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1508390280nserf1508390280usc@s1508390280ijala1508390280b1508390280
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1508390280iamg@15083902803801n1508390280hsm1508390280
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1508390280tatsd1508390280uolct1508390280s@hah1508390280sah1508390280
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1508390280sv@in1508390280abyeh1508390280se1508390280
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1508390280acn@s1508390280uabis1508390280um1508390280
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1508390280.ooha1508390280y@ala1508390280b_hgn1508390280is1508390280
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1508390280ohay@1508390280ytiel1508390280sha1508390280
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1508390280iamg@15083902809324t1508390280imaik1508390280nalos1508390280
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1508390280iw@jg1508390280nos1508390280
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280rotan1508390280egnos1508390280yy1508390280
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1508390280is@yu1508390280grewo1508390280p1508390280
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1508390280iho@s1508390280ureru1508390280s1508390280
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1508390280ohay@1508390280j_ire1508390280hat1508390280
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1508390280np@na1508390280tehzi1508390280l1508390280
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1508390280cetal1508390280@iraw1508390280ets1508390280
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1508390280acn@y1508390280astl1508390280
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1508390280hu@vs1508390280anauo1508390280zt1508390280
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1508390280mcu@r1508390280emluj1508390280
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1508390280sdn@a1508390280mrav.1508390280yima1508390280
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1508390280udrup1508390280@alea1508390280him1508390280
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1508390280rehtu1508390280osaig1508390280roeg@1508390280pordl1508390280awp1508390280
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1508390280iamg@1508390280notla1508390280w.mar1508390280ba.fo1508390280rP1508390280
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1508390280scc.l1508390280iam@o1508390280ahgna1508390280w1508390280
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1508390280mat@g1508390280nawJ1508390280
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1508390280e.tsu1508390280jn.li1508390280am@om1508390280gnail1508390280
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1508390280sp@sm1508390280rawmo1508390280t1508390280
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1508390280.ut.r1508390280gne@n1508390280oobw1508390280
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1508390280el@2s1508390280maill1508390280iwj1508390280
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1508390280.ut.r1508390280gne@n1508390280oobw1508390280
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1508390280nitne1508390280ligid1508390280@gnow1508390280a1508390280
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1508390280scc@u1508390280ws1508390280
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1508390280udrup1508390280@gnay1508390280b1508390280
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1508390280sdn@g1508390280nay.a1508390280ijim1508390280
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1508390280aceud1508390280rup@x1508390280gnay1508390280
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1508390280SHS@1150839028000yxf1508390280
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1508390280s-dae1508390280herom1508390280@uoy.1508390280uy1508390280
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1508390280musj@1508390280nauy.1508390280gnaih1508390280c-oap1508390280
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1508390280ba.su1508390280@gnah1508390280z.oai1508390280b1508390280
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1508390280retse1508390280wiruo1508390280ssim@1508390280uhzj1508390280
Missouri Western State University (MO)