Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1550900076iynus1550900076@mlla1550900076dba1550900076
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1550900076tm@ej1550900076arala1550900076
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1550900076sl@yl1550900076a1550900076
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076055la1550900076wal1550900076
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1550900076sv@ir1550900076asnaj1550900076
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1550900076iw@su1550900076ojdab1550900076
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1550900076ihpme1550900076m@oss1550900076irebk1550900076
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076irbma1550900076hbkp1550900076
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1550900076sgb@e1550900076kdorb1550900076m1550900076
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1550900076mat.c1550900076tne@n1550900076anahc1550900076ub1550900076
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1550900076otyal1550900076c.lia1550900076m@mah1550900076gninr1550900076uBnho1550900076J1550900076
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1550900076snm@i1550900076ac.oa1550900076iboah1550900076S1550900076
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1550900076umat@1550900076oolla1550900076hc.ba1550900076jar1550900076
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1550900076ke@ar1550900076dnahc1550900076.sgiv1550900076
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1550900076iamg@155090007672gna1550900076hci1550900076
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1550900076tatsa1550900076i@gna1550900076hchs1550900076
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1550900076tatsd1550900076aeher1550900076om@na1550900076mpahc1550900076.h1550900076
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1550900076aceud1550900076rup@1155090007621neh1550900076c1550900076
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1550900076simel1550900076o@sgn1550900076ehcmc1550900076
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1550900076ie@al1550900076lihcn1550900076ihcr1550900076
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1550900076tatsy1550900076arrum1550900076@ihse1550900076kitih1550900076cs1550900076
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1550900076tatsd1550900076ni@en1550900076arhco1550900076c.lih1550900076p1550900076
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1550900076ws@dr1550900076ofwar1550900076cme1550900076
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1550900076tu@al1550900076ahsma1550900076d-hsa1550900076karp1550900076
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1550900076mes@n1550900076ekedb1550900076
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1550900076maa@g1550900076ned.o1550900076atgne1550900076hz1550900076
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1550900076irref1550900076@edna1550900076phseD1550900076ragaS1550900076
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1550900076tatsp1550900076pa@hd1550900076htumr1550900076emod1550900076
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1550900076ywu@n1550900076audd1550900076
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1550900076su@tn1550900076opud.1550900076nayr1550900076
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1550900076io@du1550900076ryd.n1550900076ylira1550900076M1550900076
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1550900076SCE.L1550900076IAM@I1550900076HALEM1550900076
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1550900076cetnt1550900076@ywaS1550900076lEA1550900076
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1550900076ohay@15509000761inah1550900076afse_1550900076luosa1550900076r1550900076
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1550900076elytt1550900076u@orr1550900076azafd1550900076
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1550900076u.evi1550900076l@2az1550900076etrom1550900076f1550900076
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1550900076nu@lr1550900076nagin1550900076alf1550900076
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1550900076tu@gn1550900076unumo1550900076f-sui1550900076tangi1550900076
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1550900076niret1550900076tek@r1550900076etsof1550900076d1550900076
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1550900076ohay@1550900076gkuor1550900076afa1550900076
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1550900076nu.rg1550900076ne@af1550900076adeg.1550900076abad1550900076
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1550900076tt@ba1550900076rbehg1550900076.sord1550900076owet1550900076
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1550900076ke@sb1550900076big.d1550900076lanod1550900076
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1550900076foc@m1550900076zelaz1550900076nog1550900076
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1550900076vu@id1550900076imah.1550900076nesho1550900076m1550900076
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1550900076.uda@1550900076damma1550900076h.noo1550900076mam1550900076
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1550900076sp@tp1550900076uahjb1550900076
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1550900076ohay@1550900076irmih1550900076_y1550900076
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1550900076nuc.h1550900076cetyt1550900076ic@ni1550900076assoh1550900076a1550900076
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1550900076scc@u1550900076ohx1550900076
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1550900076naisi1550900076uol@n1550900076otsuo1550900076h.not1550900076lehs1550900076
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1550900076ozire1550900076v@yoh1550900076ayrra1550900076b1550900076
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1550900076tl@au1550900076hk1550900076
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1550900076sdn@g1550900076nauh.1550900076gniy1550900076
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1550900076sn@tn1550900076uhrc1550900076
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1550900076iw@re1550900076tnuH-1550900076DG1550900076
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1550900076acn@g1550900076neyhb1550900076c1550900076
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1550900076upui@1550900076notly1550900076hp1550900076
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1550900076moolb1550900076@miha1550900076rbig1550900076
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1550900076tm@ni1550900076wrilj1550900076
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1550900076ohay@15509000767002g1550900076ne_za1550900076waf1550900076
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1550900076sgb@y1550900076eltej1550900076s1550900076
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1550900076nu.ss1550900076enisu1550900076b@nos1550900076nhoja1550900076
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1550900076sb@un1550900076akr1550900076
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1550900076iamto1550900076h@aze1550900076r_k1550900076
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1550900076cimc@1550900076t2aya1550900076k1550900076
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1550900076nyaw.1550900076gne@r1550900076aktek1550900076
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1550900076.uda@1550900076inama1550900076rlawe1550900076k.hsi1550900076nam1550900076
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1550900076aceud1550900076rup@m1550900076iK.no1550900076oH-ea1550900076T1550900076
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1550900076mcu@h1550900076cok1550900076
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1550900076tatsa1550900076notya1550900076d@Sse1550900076jirk1550900076
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1550900076rh@ac1550900076ajluk1550900076o1550900076
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076khser1550900076kahc1550900076
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1550900076do@ra1550900076muks1550900076
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1550900076iho@l1550900076appur1550900076uk1550900076
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1550900076mhj@21550900076dnale1550900076
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1550900076sp@9l1550900076er1550900076
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1550900076oisle1550900076cxe@r1550900076ialce1550900076lj1550900076
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1550900076sp@821550900076lus1550900076
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1550900076cimc@1550900076s5eel1550900076
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1550900076maf@i1550900076l.oah1550900076c1550900076
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1550900076ce@JN1550900076NIL1550900076
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1550900076sp@re1550900076lihwt1550900076il.el1550900076ad1550900076
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076212xg1550900076uil1550900076
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1550900076iamg@155090007659uil1550900076gnep1550900076
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1550900076nu.ym1550900076@2uyl1550900076
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1550900076iw@ga1550900076m1550900076
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1550900076ura@i1550900076nam.m1550900076
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1550900076naisi1550900076uol@91550900076642mh1550900076g1550900076
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1550900076tatso1550900076laffu1550900076b@jso1550900076ryam1550900076
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1550900076su@dl1550900076anodc1550900076mnt1550900076
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1550900076ie@no1550900076tlemw1550900076d1550900076
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076ieazr1550900076im.he1550900076fuoko1550900076hs1550900076
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1550900076ihpme1550900076m@deh1550900076sromb1550900076
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1550900076ohay@1550900076nayyr1550900076m_S1550900076
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1550900076musj@1550900076yhpru1550900076m.l.a1550900076cisse1550900076j1550900076
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1550900076nre.d1550900076yhou@1550900076sckia1550900076n1550900076
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1550900076nserf1550900076usc@r1550900076aibma1550900076na1550900076
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1550900076.ooha1550900076y@ray1550900076yan_d1550900076nana1550900076
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1550900076letat1550900076slac.1550900076egnah1550900076cxe@n1550900076oslen1550900076s1550900076
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076hdnam1550900076uorin1550900076
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1550900076tm@ar1550900076ievil1550900076o1550900076
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1550900076mcu@n1550900076osill1550900076o1550900076
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1550900076tatsn1550900076t@eke1550900076ubeyn1550900076ol1550900076
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1550900076fpi@r1550900076olbap1550900076
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1550900076ozire1550900076v@sol1550900076uopos1550900076tuona1550900076p.eli1550900076sab1550900076
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076nivah1550900076bimaw1550900076s1550900076
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1550900076aceud1550900076rup@j1550900076anep1550900076
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1550900076udrup1550900076@hcis1550900076urep1550900076
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1550900076sv@ho1550900076riahp1550900076t1550900076
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076UYUHU1550900076Q1550900076
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1550900076sa@sa1550900076dajar1550900076
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1550900076is@ri1550900076nirah1550900076
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076bhtan1550900076maray1550900076ajiv1550900076
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1550900076e.wp@1550900076osard1550900076
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1550900076nuC.h1550900076ceTyt1550900076iC@in1550900076azarm1550900076
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076rakde1550900076rss1550900076
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1550900076fau@s1550900076dlony1550900076er.le1550900076ahcim1550900076
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1550900076otrel1550900076luf.e1550900076gnahc1550900076xe@no1550900076sborn1550900076
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1550900076iamg@15509000762130s1550900076regor1550900076m1550900076
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1550900076yb@ew1550900076or_el1550900076ad1550900076
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1550900076ekab@1550900076alas.1550900076acna1550900076
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1550900076tm@eu1550900076gresv1550900076a1550900076
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1550900076nserf1550900076usc@s1550900076ijala1550900076b1550900076
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1550900076iamg@15509000763801n1550900076hsm1550900076
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1550900076tatsd1550900076uolct1550900076s@hah1550900076sah1550900076
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1550900076sv@in1550900076abyeh1550900076se1550900076
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1550900076acn@s1550900076uabis1550900076um1550900076
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1550900076.ooha1550900076y@ala1550900076b_hgn1550900076is1550900076
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1550900076ohay@1550900076ytiel1550900076sha1550900076
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1550900076iamg@15509000769324t1550900076imaik1550900076nalos1550900076
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1550900076iw@jg1550900076nos1550900076
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076rotan1550900076egnos1550900076yy1550900076
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1550900076is@yu1550900076grewo1550900076p1550900076
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1550900076iho@s1550900076ureru1550900076s1550900076
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1550900076ohay@1550900076j_ire1550900076hat1550900076
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1550900076np@na1550900076tehzi1550900076l1550900076
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1550900076cetal1550900076@iraw1550900076ets1550900076
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1550900076acn@y1550900076astl1550900076
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1550900076hu@vs1550900076anauo1550900076zt1550900076
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1550900076mcu@r1550900076emluj1550900076
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1550900076sdn@a1550900076mrav.1550900076yima1550900076
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1550900076udrup1550900076@alea1550900076him1550900076
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1550900076rehtu1550900076osaig1550900076roeg@1550900076pordl1550900076awp1550900076
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1550900076iamg@1550900076notla1550900076w.mar1550900076ba.fo1550900076rP1550900076
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1550900076scc.l1550900076iam@o1550900076ahgna1550900076w1550900076
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1550900076mat@g1550900076nawJ1550900076
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1550900076e.tsu1550900076jn.li1550900076am@om1550900076gnail1550900076
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1550900076sp@sm1550900076rawmo1550900076t1550900076
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1550900076.ut.r1550900076gne@n1550900076oobw1550900076
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1550900076el@2s1550900076maill1550900076iwj1550900076
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1550900076.ut.r1550900076gne@n1550900076oobw1550900076
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1550900076nitne1550900076ligid1550900076@gnow1550900076a1550900076
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1550900076scc@u1550900076ws1550900076
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1550900076udrup1550900076@gnay1550900076b1550900076
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1550900076sdn@g1550900076nay.a1550900076ijim1550900076
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1550900076aceud1550900076rup@x1550900076gnay1550900076
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1550900076SHS@1155090007600yxf1550900076
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1550900076s-dae1550900076herom1550900076@uoy.1550900076uy1550900076
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1550900076musj@1550900076nauy.1550900076gnaih1550900076c-oap1550900076
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1550900076ba.su1550900076@gnah1550900076z.oai1550900076b1550900076
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1550900076retse1550900076wiruo1550900076ssim@1550900076uhzj1550900076
Missouri Western State University (MO)