Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1490688546iynus1490688546@mlla1490688546dba1490688546
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1490688546tm@ej1490688546arala1490688546
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1490688546sl@yl1490688546a1490688546
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546055la1490688546wal1490688546
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1490688546sv@ir1490688546asnaj1490688546
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1490688546iw@su1490688546ojdab1490688546
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1490688546ihpme1490688546m@oss1490688546irebk1490688546
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546irbma1490688546hbkp1490688546
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1490688546sgb@e1490688546kdorb1490688546m1490688546
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1490688546mat.c1490688546tne@n1490688546anahc1490688546ub1490688546
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1490688546otyal1490688546c.lia1490688546m@mah1490688546gninr1490688546uBnho1490688546J1490688546
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1490688546snm@i1490688546ac.oa1490688546iboah1490688546S1490688546
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1490688546umat@1490688546oolla1490688546hc.ba1490688546jar1490688546
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1490688546ke@ar1490688546dnahc1490688546.sgiv1490688546
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1490688546iamg@149068854672gna1490688546hci1490688546
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1490688546tatsa1490688546i@gna1490688546hchs1490688546
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1490688546tatsd1490688546aeher1490688546om@na1490688546mpahc1490688546.h1490688546
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1490688546aceud1490688546rup@1149068854621neh1490688546c1490688546
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1490688546simel1490688546o@sgn1490688546ehcmc1490688546
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1490688546ie@al1490688546lihcn1490688546ihcr1490688546
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1490688546tatsy1490688546arrum1490688546@ihse1490688546kitih1490688546cs1490688546
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1490688546tatsd1490688546ni@en1490688546arhco1490688546c.lih1490688546p1490688546
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1490688546ws@dr1490688546ofwar1490688546cme1490688546
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1490688546tu@al1490688546ahsma1490688546d-hsa1490688546karp1490688546
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1490688546mes@n1490688546ekedb1490688546
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1490688546maa@g1490688546ned.o1490688546atgne1490688546hz1490688546
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1490688546irref1490688546@edna1490688546phseD1490688546ragaS1490688546
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1490688546tatsp1490688546pa@hd1490688546htumr1490688546emod1490688546
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1490688546ywu@n1490688546audd1490688546
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1490688546su@tn1490688546opud.1490688546nayr1490688546
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1490688546io@du1490688546ryd.n1490688546ylira1490688546M1490688546
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1490688546SCE.L1490688546IAM@I1490688546HALEM1490688546
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1490688546cetnt1490688546@ywaS1490688546lEA1490688546
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1490688546ohay@14906885461inah1490688546afse_1490688546luosa1490688546r1490688546
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1490688546elytt1490688546u@orr1490688546azafd1490688546
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1490688546u.evi1490688546l@2az1490688546etrom1490688546f1490688546
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1490688546nu@lr1490688546nagin1490688546alf1490688546
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1490688546tu@gn1490688546unumo1490688546f-sui1490688546tangi1490688546
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1490688546niret1490688546tek@r1490688546etsof1490688546d1490688546
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1490688546ohay@1490688546gkuor1490688546afa1490688546
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1490688546nu.rg1490688546ne@af1490688546adeg.1490688546abad1490688546
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1490688546tt@ba1490688546rbehg1490688546.sord1490688546owet1490688546
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1490688546ke@sb1490688546big.d1490688546lanod1490688546
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1490688546foc@m1490688546zelaz1490688546nog1490688546
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1490688546vu@id1490688546imah.1490688546nesho1490688546m1490688546
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1490688546.uda@1490688546damma1490688546h.noo1490688546mam1490688546
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1490688546sp@tp1490688546uahjb1490688546
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1490688546ohay@1490688546irmih1490688546_y1490688546
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1490688546nuc.h1490688546cetyt1490688546ic@ni1490688546assoh1490688546a1490688546
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1490688546scc@u1490688546ohx1490688546
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1490688546naisi1490688546uol@n1490688546otsuo1490688546h.not1490688546lehs1490688546
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1490688546ozire1490688546v@yoh1490688546ayrra1490688546b1490688546
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1490688546tl@au1490688546hk1490688546
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1490688546sdn@g1490688546nauh.1490688546gniy1490688546
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1490688546sn@tn1490688546uhrc1490688546
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1490688546iw@re1490688546tnuH-1490688546DG1490688546
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1490688546acn@g1490688546neyhb1490688546c1490688546
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1490688546upui@1490688546notly1490688546hp1490688546
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1490688546moolb1490688546@miha1490688546rbig1490688546
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1490688546tm@ni1490688546wrilj1490688546
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1490688546ohay@14906885467002g1490688546ne_za1490688546waf1490688546
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1490688546sgb@y1490688546eltej1490688546s1490688546
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1490688546nu.ss1490688546enisu1490688546b@nos1490688546nhoja1490688546
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1490688546sb@un1490688546akr1490688546
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1490688546iamto1490688546h@aze1490688546r_k1490688546
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1490688546cimc@1490688546t2aya1490688546k1490688546
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1490688546nyaw.1490688546gne@r1490688546aktek1490688546
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1490688546.uda@1490688546inama1490688546rlawe1490688546k.hsi1490688546nam1490688546
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1490688546aceud1490688546rup@m1490688546iK.no1490688546oH-ea1490688546T1490688546
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1490688546mcu@h1490688546cok1490688546
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1490688546tatsa1490688546notya1490688546d@Sse1490688546jirk1490688546
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1490688546rh@ac1490688546ajluk1490688546o1490688546
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546khser1490688546kahc1490688546
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1490688546do@ra1490688546muks1490688546
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1490688546iho@l1490688546appur1490688546uk1490688546
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1490688546mhj@21490688546dnale1490688546
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1490688546sp@9l1490688546er1490688546
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1490688546oisle1490688546cxe@r1490688546ialce1490688546lj1490688546
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1490688546sp@821490688546lus1490688546
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1490688546cimc@1490688546s5eel1490688546
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1490688546maf@i1490688546l.oah1490688546c1490688546
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1490688546ce@JN1490688546NIL1490688546
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1490688546sp@re1490688546lihwt1490688546il.el1490688546ad1490688546
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546212xg1490688546uil1490688546
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1490688546iamg@149068854659uil1490688546gnep1490688546
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1490688546nu.ym1490688546@2uyl1490688546
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1490688546iw@ga1490688546m1490688546
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1490688546ura@i1490688546nam.m1490688546
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1490688546naisi1490688546uol@91490688546642mh1490688546g1490688546
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1490688546tatso1490688546laffu1490688546b@jso1490688546ryam1490688546
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1490688546su@dl1490688546anodc1490688546mnt1490688546
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1490688546ie@no1490688546tlemw1490688546d1490688546
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546ieazr1490688546im.he1490688546fuoko1490688546hs1490688546
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1490688546ihpme1490688546m@deh1490688546sromb1490688546
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1490688546ohay@1490688546nayyr1490688546m_S1490688546
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1490688546musj@1490688546yhpru1490688546m.l.a1490688546cisse1490688546j1490688546
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1490688546nre.d1490688546yhou@1490688546sckia1490688546n1490688546
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1490688546nserf1490688546usc@r1490688546aibma1490688546na1490688546
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1490688546.ooha1490688546y@ray1490688546yan_d1490688546nana1490688546
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1490688546letat1490688546slac.1490688546egnah1490688546cxe@n1490688546oslen1490688546s1490688546
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546hdnam1490688546uorin1490688546
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1490688546tm@ar1490688546ievil1490688546o1490688546
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1490688546mcu@n1490688546osill1490688546o1490688546
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1490688546tatsn1490688546t@eke1490688546ubeyn1490688546ol1490688546
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1490688546fpi@r1490688546olbap1490688546
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1490688546ozire1490688546v@sol1490688546uopos1490688546tuona1490688546p.eli1490688546sab1490688546
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546nivah1490688546bimaw1490688546s1490688546
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1490688546aceud1490688546rup@j1490688546anep1490688546
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1490688546udrup1490688546@hcis1490688546urep1490688546
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1490688546sv@ho1490688546riahp1490688546t1490688546
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546UYUHU1490688546Q1490688546
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1490688546sa@sa1490688546dajar1490688546
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1490688546is@ri1490688546nirah1490688546
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546bhtan1490688546maray1490688546ajiv1490688546
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1490688546e.wp@1490688546osard1490688546
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1490688546nuC.h1490688546ceTyt1490688546iC@in1490688546azarm1490688546
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546rakde1490688546rss1490688546
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1490688546fau@s1490688546dlony1490688546er.le1490688546ahcim1490688546
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1490688546otrel1490688546luf.e1490688546gnahc1490688546xe@no1490688546sborn1490688546
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1490688546iamg@14906885462130s1490688546regor1490688546m1490688546
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1490688546yb@ew1490688546or_el1490688546ad1490688546
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1490688546ekab@1490688546alas.1490688546acna1490688546
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1490688546tm@eu1490688546gresv1490688546a1490688546
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1490688546nserf1490688546usc@s1490688546ijala1490688546b1490688546
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1490688546iamg@14906885463801n1490688546hsm1490688546
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1490688546tatsd1490688546uolct1490688546s@hah1490688546sah1490688546
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1490688546sv@in1490688546abyeh1490688546se1490688546
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1490688546acn@s1490688546uabis1490688546um1490688546
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1490688546.ooha1490688546y@ala1490688546b_hgn1490688546is1490688546
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1490688546ohay@1490688546ytiel1490688546sha1490688546
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1490688546iamg@14906885469324t1490688546imaik1490688546nalos1490688546
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1490688546iw@jg1490688546nos1490688546
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546rotan1490688546egnos1490688546yy1490688546
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1490688546is@yu1490688546grewo1490688546p1490688546
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1490688546iho@s1490688546ureru1490688546s1490688546
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1490688546ohay@1490688546j_ire1490688546hat1490688546
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1490688546np@na1490688546tehzi1490688546l1490688546
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1490688546cetal1490688546@iraw1490688546ets1490688546
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1490688546acn@y1490688546astl1490688546
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1490688546hu@vs1490688546anauo1490688546zt1490688546
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1490688546mcu@r1490688546emluj1490688546
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1490688546sdn@a1490688546mrav.1490688546yima1490688546
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1490688546udrup1490688546@alea1490688546him1490688546
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1490688546rehtu1490688546osaig1490688546roeg@1490688546pordl1490688546awp1490688546
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1490688546iamg@1490688546notla1490688546w.mar1490688546ba.fo1490688546rP1490688546
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1490688546scc.l1490688546iam@o1490688546ahgna1490688546w1490688546
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1490688546mat@g1490688546nawJ1490688546
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1490688546e.tsu1490688546jn.li1490688546am@om1490688546gnail1490688546
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1490688546sp@sm1490688546rawmo1490688546t1490688546
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1490688546.ut.r1490688546gne@n1490688546oobw1490688546
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1490688546el@2s1490688546maill1490688546iwj1490688546
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1490688546.ut.r1490688546gne@n1490688546oobw1490688546
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1490688546nitne1490688546ligid1490688546@gnow1490688546a1490688546
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1490688546scc@u1490688546ws1490688546
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1490688546udrup1490688546@gnay1490688546b1490688546
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1490688546sdn@g1490688546nay.a1490688546ijim1490688546
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1490688546aceud1490688546rup@x1490688546gnay1490688546
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1490688546SHS@1149068854600yxf1490688546
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1490688546s-dae1490688546herom1490688546@uoy.1490688546uy1490688546
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1490688546musj@1490688546nauy.1490688546gnaih1490688546c-oap1490688546
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1490688546ba.su1490688546@gnah1490688546z.oai1490688546b1490688546
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1490688546retse1490688546wiruo1490688546ssim@1490688546uhzj1490688546
Missouri Western State University (MO)