Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1495770251iynus1495770251@mlla1495770251dba1495770251
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1495770251tm@ej1495770251arala1495770251
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1495770251sl@yl1495770251a1495770251
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251055la1495770251wal1495770251
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1495770251sv@ir1495770251asnaj1495770251
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1495770251iw@su1495770251ojdab1495770251
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1495770251ihpme1495770251m@oss1495770251irebk1495770251
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251irbma1495770251hbkp1495770251
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1495770251sgb@e1495770251kdorb1495770251m1495770251
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1495770251mat.c1495770251tne@n1495770251anahc1495770251ub1495770251
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1495770251otyal1495770251c.lia1495770251m@mah1495770251gninr1495770251uBnho1495770251J1495770251
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1495770251snm@i1495770251ac.oa1495770251iboah1495770251S1495770251
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1495770251umat@1495770251oolla1495770251hc.ba1495770251jar1495770251
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1495770251ke@ar1495770251dnahc1495770251.sgiv1495770251
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1495770251iamg@149577025172gna1495770251hci1495770251
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1495770251tatsa1495770251i@gna1495770251hchs1495770251
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1495770251tatsd1495770251aeher1495770251om@na1495770251mpahc1495770251.h1495770251
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1495770251aceud1495770251rup@1149577025121neh1495770251c1495770251
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1495770251simel1495770251o@sgn1495770251ehcmc1495770251
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1495770251ie@al1495770251lihcn1495770251ihcr1495770251
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1495770251tatsy1495770251arrum1495770251@ihse1495770251kitih1495770251cs1495770251
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1495770251tatsd1495770251ni@en1495770251arhco1495770251c.lih1495770251p1495770251
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1495770251ws@dr1495770251ofwar1495770251cme1495770251
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1495770251tu@al1495770251ahsma1495770251d-hsa1495770251karp1495770251
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1495770251mes@n1495770251ekedb1495770251
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1495770251maa@g1495770251ned.o1495770251atgne1495770251hz1495770251
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1495770251irref1495770251@edna1495770251phseD1495770251ragaS1495770251
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1495770251tatsp1495770251pa@hd1495770251htumr1495770251emod1495770251
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1495770251ywu@n1495770251audd1495770251
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1495770251su@tn1495770251opud.1495770251nayr1495770251
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1495770251io@du1495770251ryd.n1495770251ylira1495770251M1495770251
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1495770251SCE.L1495770251IAM@I1495770251HALEM1495770251
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1495770251cetnt1495770251@ywaS1495770251lEA1495770251
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1495770251ohay@14957702511inah1495770251afse_1495770251luosa1495770251r1495770251
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1495770251elytt1495770251u@orr1495770251azafd1495770251
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1495770251u.evi1495770251l@2az1495770251etrom1495770251f1495770251
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1495770251nu@lr1495770251nagin1495770251alf1495770251
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1495770251tu@gn1495770251unumo1495770251f-sui1495770251tangi1495770251
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1495770251niret1495770251tek@r1495770251etsof1495770251d1495770251
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1495770251ohay@1495770251gkuor1495770251afa1495770251
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1495770251nu.rg1495770251ne@af1495770251adeg.1495770251abad1495770251
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1495770251tt@ba1495770251rbehg1495770251.sord1495770251owet1495770251
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1495770251ke@sb1495770251big.d1495770251lanod1495770251
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1495770251foc@m1495770251zelaz1495770251nog1495770251
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1495770251vu@id1495770251imah.1495770251nesho1495770251m1495770251
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1495770251.uda@1495770251damma1495770251h.noo1495770251mam1495770251
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1495770251sp@tp1495770251uahjb1495770251
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1495770251ohay@1495770251irmih1495770251_y1495770251
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1495770251nuc.h1495770251cetyt1495770251ic@ni1495770251assoh1495770251a1495770251
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1495770251scc@u1495770251ohx1495770251
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1495770251naisi1495770251uol@n1495770251otsuo1495770251h.not1495770251lehs1495770251
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1495770251ozire1495770251v@yoh1495770251ayrra1495770251b1495770251
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1495770251tl@au1495770251hk1495770251
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1495770251sdn@g1495770251nauh.1495770251gniy1495770251
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1495770251sn@tn1495770251uhrc1495770251
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1495770251iw@re1495770251tnuH-1495770251DG1495770251
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1495770251acn@g1495770251neyhb1495770251c1495770251
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1495770251upui@1495770251notly1495770251hp1495770251
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1495770251moolb1495770251@miha1495770251rbig1495770251
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1495770251tm@ni1495770251wrilj1495770251
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1495770251ohay@14957702517002g1495770251ne_za1495770251waf1495770251
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1495770251sgb@y1495770251eltej1495770251s1495770251
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1495770251nu.ss1495770251enisu1495770251b@nos1495770251nhoja1495770251
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1495770251sb@un1495770251akr1495770251
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1495770251iamto1495770251h@aze1495770251r_k1495770251
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1495770251cimc@1495770251t2aya1495770251k1495770251
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1495770251nyaw.1495770251gne@r1495770251aktek1495770251
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1495770251.uda@1495770251inama1495770251rlawe1495770251k.hsi1495770251nam1495770251
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1495770251aceud1495770251rup@m1495770251iK.no1495770251oH-ea1495770251T1495770251
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1495770251mcu@h1495770251cok1495770251
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1495770251tatsa1495770251notya1495770251d@Sse1495770251jirk1495770251
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1495770251rh@ac1495770251ajluk1495770251o1495770251
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251khser1495770251kahc1495770251
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1495770251do@ra1495770251muks1495770251
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1495770251iho@l1495770251appur1495770251uk1495770251
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1495770251mhj@21495770251dnale1495770251
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1495770251sp@9l1495770251er1495770251
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1495770251oisle1495770251cxe@r1495770251ialce1495770251lj1495770251
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1495770251sp@821495770251lus1495770251
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1495770251cimc@1495770251s5eel1495770251
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1495770251maf@i1495770251l.oah1495770251c1495770251
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1495770251ce@JN1495770251NIL1495770251
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1495770251sp@re1495770251lihwt1495770251il.el1495770251ad1495770251
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251212xg1495770251uil1495770251
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1495770251iamg@149577025159uil1495770251gnep1495770251
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1495770251nu.ym1495770251@2uyl1495770251
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1495770251iw@ga1495770251m1495770251
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1495770251ura@i1495770251nam.m1495770251
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1495770251naisi1495770251uol@91495770251642mh1495770251g1495770251
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1495770251tatso1495770251laffu1495770251b@jso1495770251ryam1495770251
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1495770251su@dl1495770251anodc1495770251mnt1495770251
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1495770251ie@no1495770251tlemw1495770251d1495770251
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251ieazr1495770251im.he1495770251fuoko1495770251hs1495770251
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1495770251ihpme1495770251m@deh1495770251sromb1495770251
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1495770251ohay@1495770251nayyr1495770251m_S1495770251
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1495770251musj@1495770251yhpru1495770251m.l.a1495770251cisse1495770251j1495770251
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1495770251nre.d1495770251yhou@1495770251sckia1495770251n1495770251
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1495770251nserf1495770251usc@r1495770251aibma1495770251na1495770251
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1495770251.ooha1495770251y@ray1495770251yan_d1495770251nana1495770251
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1495770251letat1495770251slac.1495770251egnah1495770251cxe@n1495770251oslen1495770251s1495770251
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251hdnam1495770251uorin1495770251
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1495770251tm@ar1495770251ievil1495770251o1495770251
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1495770251mcu@n1495770251osill1495770251o1495770251
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1495770251tatsn1495770251t@eke1495770251ubeyn1495770251ol1495770251
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1495770251fpi@r1495770251olbap1495770251
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1495770251ozire1495770251v@sol1495770251uopos1495770251tuona1495770251p.eli1495770251sab1495770251
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251nivah1495770251bimaw1495770251s1495770251
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1495770251aceud1495770251rup@j1495770251anep1495770251
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1495770251udrup1495770251@hcis1495770251urep1495770251
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1495770251sv@ho1495770251riahp1495770251t1495770251
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251UYUHU1495770251Q1495770251
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1495770251sa@sa1495770251dajar1495770251
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1495770251is@ri1495770251nirah1495770251
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251bhtan1495770251maray1495770251ajiv1495770251
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1495770251e.wp@1495770251osard1495770251
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1495770251nuC.h1495770251ceTyt1495770251iC@in1495770251azarm1495770251
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251rakde1495770251rss1495770251
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1495770251fau@s1495770251dlony1495770251er.le1495770251ahcim1495770251
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1495770251otrel1495770251luf.e1495770251gnahc1495770251xe@no1495770251sborn1495770251
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1495770251iamg@14957702512130s1495770251regor1495770251m1495770251
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1495770251yb@ew1495770251or_el1495770251ad1495770251
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1495770251ekab@1495770251alas.1495770251acna1495770251
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1495770251tm@eu1495770251gresv1495770251a1495770251
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1495770251nserf1495770251usc@s1495770251ijala1495770251b1495770251
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1495770251iamg@14957702513801n1495770251hsm1495770251
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1495770251tatsd1495770251uolct1495770251s@hah1495770251sah1495770251
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1495770251sv@in1495770251abyeh1495770251se1495770251
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1495770251acn@s1495770251uabis1495770251um1495770251
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1495770251.ooha1495770251y@ala1495770251b_hgn1495770251is1495770251
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1495770251ohay@1495770251ytiel1495770251sha1495770251
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1495770251iamg@14957702519324t1495770251imaik1495770251nalos1495770251
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1495770251iw@jg1495770251nos1495770251
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251rotan1495770251egnos1495770251yy1495770251
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1495770251is@yu1495770251grewo1495770251p1495770251
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1495770251iho@s1495770251ureru1495770251s1495770251
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1495770251ohay@1495770251j_ire1495770251hat1495770251
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1495770251np@na1495770251tehzi1495770251l1495770251
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1495770251cetal1495770251@iraw1495770251ets1495770251
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1495770251acn@y1495770251astl1495770251
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1495770251hu@vs1495770251anauo1495770251zt1495770251
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1495770251mcu@r1495770251emluj1495770251
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1495770251sdn@a1495770251mrav.1495770251yima1495770251
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1495770251udrup1495770251@alea1495770251him1495770251
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1495770251rehtu1495770251osaig1495770251roeg@1495770251pordl1495770251awp1495770251
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1495770251iamg@1495770251notla1495770251w.mar1495770251ba.fo1495770251rP1495770251
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1495770251scc.l1495770251iam@o1495770251ahgna1495770251w1495770251
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1495770251mat@g1495770251nawJ1495770251
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1495770251e.tsu1495770251jn.li1495770251am@om1495770251gnail1495770251
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1495770251sp@sm1495770251rawmo1495770251t1495770251
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1495770251.ut.r1495770251gne@n1495770251oobw1495770251
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1495770251el@2s1495770251maill1495770251iwj1495770251
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1495770251.ut.r1495770251gne@n1495770251oobw1495770251
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1495770251nitne1495770251ligid1495770251@gnow1495770251a1495770251
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1495770251scc@u1495770251ws1495770251
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1495770251udrup1495770251@gnay1495770251b1495770251
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1495770251sdn@g1495770251nay.a1495770251ijim1495770251
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1495770251aceud1495770251rup@x1495770251gnay1495770251
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1495770251SHS@1149577025100yxf1495770251
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1495770251s-dae1495770251herom1495770251@uoy.1495770251uy1495770251
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1495770251musj@1495770251nauy.1495770251gnaih1495770251c-oap1495770251
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1495770251ba.su1495770251@gnah1495770251z.oai1495770251b1495770251
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1495770251retse1495770251wiruo1495770251ssim@1495770251uhzj1495770251
Missouri Western State University (MO)