Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1509480196iynus1509480196@mlla1509480196dba1509480196
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1509480196tm@ej1509480196arala1509480196
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1509480196sl@yl1509480196a1509480196
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196055la1509480196wal1509480196
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1509480196sv@ir1509480196asnaj1509480196
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1509480196iw@su1509480196ojdab1509480196
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1509480196ihpme1509480196m@oss1509480196irebk1509480196
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196irbma1509480196hbkp1509480196
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1509480196sgb@e1509480196kdorb1509480196m1509480196
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1509480196mat.c1509480196tne@n1509480196anahc1509480196ub1509480196
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1509480196otyal1509480196c.lia1509480196m@mah1509480196gninr1509480196uBnho1509480196J1509480196
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1509480196snm@i1509480196ac.oa1509480196iboah1509480196S1509480196
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1509480196umat@1509480196oolla1509480196hc.ba1509480196jar1509480196
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1509480196ke@ar1509480196dnahc1509480196.sgiv1509480196
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1509480196iamg@150948019672gna1509480196hci1509480196
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1509480196tatsa1509480196i@gna1509480196hchs1509480196
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1509480196tatsd1509480196aeher1509480196om@na1509480196mpahc1509480196.h1509480196
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1509480196aceud1509480196rup@1150948019621neh1509480196c1509480196
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1509480196simel1509480196o@sgn1509480196ehcmc1509480196
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1509480196ie@al1509480196lihcn1509480196ihcr1509480196
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1509480196tatsy1509480196arrum1509480196@ihse1509480196kitih1509480196cs1509480196
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1509480196tatsd1509480196ni@en1509480196arhco1509480196c.lih1509480196p1509480196
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1509480196ws@dr1509480196ofwar1509480196cme1509480196
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1509480196tu@al1509480196ahsma1509480196d-hsa1509480196karp1509480196
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1509480196mes@n1509480196ekedb1509480196
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1509480196maa@g1509480196ned.o1509480196atgne1509480196hz1509480196
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1509480196irref1509480196@edna1509480196phseD1509480196ragaS1509480196
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1509480196tatsp1509480196pa@hd1509480196htumr1509480196emod1509480196
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1509480196ywu@n1509480196audd1509480196
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1509480196su@tn1509480196opud.1509480196nayr1509480196
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1509480196io@du1509480196ryd.n1509480196ylira1509480196M1509480196
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1509480196SCE.L1509480196IAM@I1509480196HALEM1509480196
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1509480196cetnt1509480196@ywaS1509480196lEA1509480196
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1509480196ohay@15094801961inah1509480196afse_1509480196luosa1509480196r1509480196
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1509480196elytt1509480196u@orr1509480196azafd1509480196
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1509480196u.evi1509480196l@2az1509480196etrom1509480196f1509480196
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1509480196nu@lr1509480196nagin1509480196alf1509480196
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1509480196tu@gn1509480196unumo1509480196f-sui1509480196tangi1509480196
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1509480196niret1509480196tek@r1509480196etsof1509480196d1509480196
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1509480196ohay@1509480196gkuor1509480196afa1509480196
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1509480196nu.rg1509480196ne@af1509480196adeg.1509480196abad1509480196
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1509480196tt@ba1509480196rbehg1509480196.sord1509480196owet1509480196
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1509480196ke@sb1509480196big.d1509480196lanod1509480196
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1509480196foc@m1509480196zelaz1509480196nog1509480196
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1509480196vu@id1509480196imah.1509480196nesho1509480196m1509480196
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1509480196.uda@1509480196damma1509480196h.noo1509480196mam1509480196
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1509480196sp@tp1509480196uahjb1509480196
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1509480196ohay@1509480196irmih1509480196_y1509480196
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1509480196nuc.h1509480196cetyt1509480196ic@ni1509480196assoh1509480196a1509480196
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1509480196scc@u1509480196ohx1509480196
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1509480196naisi1509480196uol@n1509480196otsuo1509480196h.not1509480196lehs1509480196
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1509480196ozire1509480196v@yoh1509480196ayrra1509480196b1509480196
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1509480196tl@au1509480196hk1509480196
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1509480196sdn@g1509480196nauh.1509480196gniy1509480196
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1509480196sn@tn1509480196uhrc1509480196
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1509480196iw@re1509480196tnuH-1509480196DG1509480196
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1509480196acn@g1509480196neyhb1509480196c1509480196
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1509480196upui@1509480196notly1509480196hp1509480196
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1509480196moolb1509480196@miha1509480196rbig1509480196
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1509480196tm@ni1509480196wrilj1509480196
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1509480196ohay@15094801967002g1509480196ne_za1509480196waf1509480196
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1509480196sgb@y1509480196eltej1509480196s1509480196
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1509480196nu.ss1509480196enisu1509480196b@nos1509480196nhoja1509480196
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1509480196sb@un1509480196akr1509480196
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1509480196iamto1509480196h@aze1509480196r_k1509480196
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1509480196cimc@1509480196t2aya1509480196k1509480196
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1509480196nyaw.1509480196gne@r1509480196aktek1509480196
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1509480196.uda@1509480196inama1509480196rlawe1509480196k.hsi1509480196nam1509480196
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1509480196aceud1509480196rup@m1509480196iK.no1509480196oH-ea1509480196T1509480196
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1509480196mcu@h1509480196cok1509480196
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1509480196tatsa1509480196notya1509480196d@Sse1509480196jirk1509480196
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1509480196rh@ac1509480196ajluk1509480196o1509480196
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196khser1509480196kahc1509480196
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1509480196do@ra1509480196muks1509480196
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1509480196iho@l1509480196appur1509480196uk1509480196
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1509480196mhj@21509480196dnale1509480196
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1509480196sp@9l1509480196er1509480196
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1509480196oisle1509480196cxe@r1509480196ialce1509480196lj1509480196
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1509480196sp@821509480196lus1509480196
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1509480196cimc@1509480196s5eel1509480196
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1509480196maf@i1509480196l.oah1509480196c1509480196
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1509480196ce@JN1509480196NIL1509480196
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1509480196sp@re1509480196lihwt1509480196il.el1509480196ad1509480196
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196212xg1509480196uil1509480196
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1509480196iamg@150948019659uil1509480196gnep1509480196
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1509480196nu.ym1509480196@2uyl1509480196
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1509480196iw@ga1509480196m1509480196
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1509480196ura@i1509480196nam.m1509480196
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1509480196naisi1509480196uol@91509480196642mh1509480196g1509480196
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1509480196tatso1509480196laffu1509480196b@jso1509480196ryam1509480196
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1509480196su@dl1509480196anodc1509480196mnt1509480196
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1509480196ie@no1509480196tlemw1509480196d1509480196
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196ieazr1509480196im.he1509480196fuoko1509480196hs1509480196
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1509480196ihpme1509480196m@deh1509480196sromb1509480196
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1509480196ohay@1509480196nayyr1509480196m_S1509480196
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1509480196musj@1509480196yhpru1509480196m.l.a1509480196cisse1509480196j1509480196
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1509480196nre.d1509480196yhou@1509480196sckia1509480196n1509480196
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1509480196nserf1509480196usc@r1509480196aibma1509480196na1509480196
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1509480196.ooha1509480196y@ray1509480196yan_d1509480196nana1509480196
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1509480196letat1509480196slac.1509480196egnah1509480196cxe@n1509480196oslen1509480196s1509480196
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196hdnam1509480196uorin1509480196
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1509480196tm@ar1509480196ievil1509480196o1509480196
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1509480196mcu@n1509480196osill1509480196o1509480196
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1509480196tatsn1509480196t@eke1509480196ubeyn1509480196ol1509480196
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1509480196fpi@r1509480196olbap1509480196
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1509480196ozire1509480196v@sol1509480196uopos1509480196tuona1509480196p.eli1509480196sab1509480196
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196nivah1509480196bimaw1509480196s1509480196
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1509480196aceud1509480196rup@j1509480196anep1509480196
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1509480196udrup1509480196@hcis1509480196urep1509480196
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1509480196sv@ho1509480196riahp1509480196t1509480196
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196UYUHU1509480196Q1509480196
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1509480196sa@sa1509480196dajar1509480196
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1509480196is@ri1509480196nirah1509480196
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196bhtan1509480196maray1509480196ajiv1509480196
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1509480196e.wp@1509480196osard1509480196
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1509480196nuC.h1509480196ceTyt1509480196iC@in1509480196azarm1509480196
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196rakde1509480196rss1509480196
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1509480196fau@s1509480196dlony1509480196er.le1509480196ahcim1509480196
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1509480196otrel1509480196luf.e1509480196gnahc1509480196xe@no1509480196sborn1509480196
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1509480196iamg@15094801962130s1509480196regor1509480196m1509480196
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1509480196yb@ew1509480196or_el1509480196ad1509480196
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1509480196ekab@1509480196alas.1509480196acna1509480196
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1509480196tm@eu1509480196gresv1509480196a1509480196
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1509480196nserf1509480196usc@s1509480196ijala1509480196b1509480196
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1509480196iamg@15094801963801n1509480196hsm1509480196
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1509480196tatsd1509480196uolct1509480196s@hah1509480196sah1509480196
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1509480196sv@in1509480196abyeh1509480196se1509480196
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1509480196acn@s1509480196uabis1509480196um1509480196
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1509480196.ooha1509480196y@ala1509480196b_hgn1509480196is1509480196
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1509480196ohay@1509480196ytiel1509480196sha1509480196
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1509480196iamg@15094801969324t1509480196imaik1509480196nalos1509480196
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1509480196iw@jg1509480196nos1509480196
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196rotan1509480196egnos1509480196yy1509480196
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1509480196is@yu1509480196grewo1509480196p1509480196
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1509480196iho@s1509480196ureru1509480196s1509480196
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1509480196ohay@1509480196j_ire1509480196hat1509480196
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1509480196np@na1509480196tehzi1509480196l1509480196
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1509480196cetal1509480196@iraw1509480196ets1509480196
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1509480196acn@y1509480196astl1509480196
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1509480196hu@vs1509480196anauo1509480196zt1509480196
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1509480196mcu@r1509480196emluj1509480196
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1509480196sdn@a1509480196mrav.1509480196yima1509480196
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1509480196udrup1509480196@alea1509480196him1509480196
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1509480196rehtu1509480196osaig1509480196roeg@1509480196pordl1509480196awp1509480196
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1509480196iamg@1509480196notla1509480196w.mar1509480196ba.fo1509480196rP1509480196
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1509480196scc.l1509480196iam@o1509480196ahgna1509480196w1509480196
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1509480196mat@g1509480196nawJ1509480196
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1509480196e.tsu1509480196jn.li1509480196am@om1509480196gnail1509480196
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1509480196sp@sm1509480196rawmo1509480196t1509480196
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1509480196.ut.r1509480196gne@n1509480196oobw1509480196
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1509480196el@2s1509480196maill1509480196iwj1509480196
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1509480196.ut.r1509480196gne@n1509480196oobw1509480196
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1509480196nitne1509480196ligid1509480196@gnow1509480196a1509480196
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1509480196scc@u1509480196ws1509480196
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1509480196udrup1509480196@gnay1509480196b1509480196
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1509480196sdn@g1509480196nay.a1509480196ijim1509480196
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1509480196aceud1509480196rup@x1509480196gnay1509480196
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1509480196SHS@1150948019600yxf1509480196
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1509480196s-dae1509480196herom1509480196@uoy.1509480196uy1509480196
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1509480196musj@1509480196nauy.1509480196gnaih1509480196c-oap1509480196
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1509480196ba.su1509480196@gnah1509480196z.oai1509480196b1509480196
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1509480196retse1509480196wiruo1509480196ssim@1509480196uhzj1509480196
Missouri Western State University (MO)