Engineering Research and Innovation

Print ISSN
2152-4157
--------------
Online ISSN
2152-4165


Currently indexed in:
              

IJERI Editorial Board

The International Journal of Engineering Research & Innovation Editors

Editor-in-Chief
Mark Rajai
California State University-Northridge

 

Associate Editors
Paul Wilder
Vincennes University

Li Tan
Purdue University

 

Production Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Publisher
International Association of Journals and Conferences (IAJC)

Manuscript Editor
Philip D. Weinsier
Bowling Green State University-Firelands

 

Copy Editors
Li Tan
Purdue University

Ahmad Sarfaraz
California State University-Northridge

 

Subscription Editor
Morteza Sadat Hossieny
Northern Kentucky University

 

Technical Editors
Marilyn Dyrud
Oregon Institute of Technology

David Foster
Kettering University

 

Web Administrator
Saeed Namyar
Advanced Information Systems


IAJC Board of Directors

 

Chairman
Mark Rajai, California State University Northridge

Vice-Chairman
William E. Fitzgibbon, University of Houston

Director
Walter Buchanan, Texas A&M University

Director
Niaz Latif, Purdue University

Director
George Sehi, Sinclair Community College

Director
Jacues Periaux, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland

 


International Review Board

Mohammed Abdallah
ude.t1501230973iynus1501230973@mlla1501230973dba1501230973
State University of NY, Institute of Technology (NY)
 
Nasser Alaraje
ude.u1501230973tm@ej1501230973arala1501230973
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Aly Mousaad Aly
ude.u1501230973sl@yl1501230973a1501230973
Louisiana State University (LA)
 
Lawal Anka
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973055la1501230973wal1501230973
Zamfara Accelerated Cotton Development Agency (NIGERIA)
 
Jahangir Ansari
ude.u1501230973sv@ir1501230973asnaj1501230973
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Salah Badjou
ude.t1501230973iw@su1501230973ojdab1501230973
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Kevin Berisso
ude.s1501230973ihpme1501230973m@oss1501230973irebk1501230973
Memphis University (TN)
 
Pankaj Bhambri
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973irbma1501230973hbkp1501230973
Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College (INDIA)
 
Michelle Brodke
ude.u1501230973sgb@e1501230973kdorb1501230973m1501230973
Bowling Green State University Firelands (OH)
 
Walter Buchanan
ude.u1501230973mat.c1501230973tne@n1501230973anahc1501230973ub1501230973
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
John Burningham
ude.n1501230973otyal1501230973c.lia1501230973m@mah1501230973gninr1501230973uBnho1501230973J1501230973
Clayton State University (GA)
 
Shaobiao Cai
ude.u1501230973snm@i1501230973ac.oa1501230973iboah1501230973S1501230973
Minnesota State University (MN)
 
Rajab Challoo
ude.k1501230973umat@1501230973oolla1501230973hc.ba1501230973jar1501230973
Texas A&M University-Kingsville (TX)
 
Vigyan Chandra
ude.u1501230973ke@ar1501230973dnahc1501230973.sgiv1501230973
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Isaac Chang
moc.l1501230973iamg@150123097372gna1501230973hci1501230973
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Shu-Hui (Susan) Chang
ude.e1501230973tatsa1501230973i@gna1501230973hchs1501230973
Iowa State University (IA)
 
Hans Chapman
ude.e1501230973tatsd1501230973aeher1501230973om@na1501230973mpahc1501230973.h1501230973
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Bin Chen
ude.l1501230973aceud1501230973rup@1150123097321neh1501230973c1501230973
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Wei-Yin Chen
ude.s1501230973simel1501230973o@sgn1501230973ehcmc1501230973
University of Mississippi (MS)
 
Rigoberto Chinchilla
ude.u1501230973ie@al1501230973lihcn1501230973ihcr1501230973
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Sanjeevi Chitikeshi
ude.e1501230973tatsy1501230973arrum1501230973@ihse1501230973kitih1501230973cs1501230973
Murray State University (KY)
 
Phil Cochrane
ude.e1501230973tatsd1501230973ni@en1501230973arhco1501230973c.lih1501230973p1501230973
Indiana State University (IN)
 
Emily Crawford
ude.u1501230973ws@dr1501230973ofwar1501230973cme1501230973
Southern Wesleyen University (SC)
 
Prakash Dhamshala
ude.c1501230973tu@al1501230973ahsma1501230973d-hsa1501230973karp1501230973
University of Tennessee-Chattanooga (TN)
 
Brad Deken
ude.o1501230973mes@n1501230973ekedb1501230973
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Z.T. Deng
ude.u1501230973maa@g1501230973ned.o1501230973atgne1501230973hz1501230973
Alabama A&M Univeristy (AL)
 
Sagar Deshpande
ude.s1501230973irref1501230973@edna1501230973phseD1501230973ragaS1501230973
Ferris State University (MI)
 
David Domermuth
ude.e1501230973tatsp1501230973pa@hd1501230973htumr1501230973emod1501230973
Appalachian State University (NC)
 
Dongliang Duan
ude.o1501230973ywu@n1501230973audd1501230973
University of Wyoming (WY)
 
Ryan Dupont
ude.u1501230973su@tn1501230973opud.1501230973nayr1501230973
Utah State University (UT)
 
Marilyn Dyrud
ude.t1501230973io@du1501230973ryd.n1501230973ylira1501230973M1501230973
Oregon Institute of Technology (OR)
 
Mehran Elahi
UDE.U1501230973SCE.L1501230973IAM@I1501230973HALEM1501230973
Elizabeth City State University (NC)
 
Ahmed Elsawy
ude.h1501230973cetnt1501230973@ywaS1501230973lEA1501230973
Tennessee Technological University (TN)
 
Rasoul Esfahani
moc.o1501230973ohay@15012309731inah1501230973afse_1501230973luosa1501230973r1501230973
DeVry University (OH)
 
Dominic Fazarro
ude.r1501230973elytt1501230973u@orr1501230973azafd1501230973
University of Texas at Tyler (TX)
 
Morteza Firouzi
ym.mt1501230973u.evi1501230973l@2az1501230973etrom1501230973f1501230973
University of Technology (MALAYSIA) 
 
Rod Flanigan
ude.k1501230973nu@lr1501230973nagin1501230973alf1501230973
University of Nebraska-Kearney (NE)
 
Ignatius Fomunung
ude.c1501230973tu@gn1501230973unumo1501230973f-sui1501230973tangi1501230973
University of Tennessee Chattanooga (TN)
 
Dave Foster
ude.g1501230973niret1501230973tek@r1501230973etsof1501230973d1501230973
Kettering University (MI)
 
Ahmed Gawad
moc.o1501230973ohay@1501230973gkuor1501230973afa1501230973
Zagazig University (EGYPT)
 
Daba Gedafa
ude.d1501230973nu.rg1501230973ne@af1501230973adeg.1501230973abad1501230973
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Ted Ghebrab
ude.u1501230973tt@ba1501230973rbehg1501230973.sord1501230973owet1501230973
Texas Tech University (TX)
 
Ralph Gibbs
ude.u1501230973ke@sb1501230973big.d1501230973lanod1501230973
Eastern Kentucky University (KY)
 
Marvin Gonzalez
ude.c1501230973foc@m1501230973zelaz1501230973nog1501230973
College of Charleston (SC)
 
Mohsen Hamidi
ude.u1501230973vu@id1501230973imah.1501230973nesho1501230973m1501230973
Utah Valley University (UT)
 
Mamoon Hammad
ea.ca1501230973.uda@1501230973damma1501230973h.noo1501230973mam1501230973
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Bernd Haupt
ude.u1501230973sp@tp1501230973uahjb1501230973
Penn State University (PA)
 
Youcef Himri
moc.o1501230973ohay@1501230973irmih1501230973_y1501230973
Safety Engineer in Sonelgaz (ALGERIA)
 
Delowar Hossain
ude.y1501230973nuc.h1501230973cetyt1501230973ic@ni1501230973assoh1501230973a1501230973
City University of New York (NY)
 
Xiaobing Hou
ude.u1501230973scc@u1501230973ohx1501230973
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Shelton Houston
ude.a1501230973naisi1501230973uol@n1501230973otsuo1501230973h.not1501230973lehs1501230973
University of Louisiana Lafayette (LA)
 
Barry Hoy
ten.n1501230973ozire1501230973v@yoh1501230973ayrra1501230973b1501230973
Saint Leo University (VA)
 
Kun Hua
ude.u1501230973tl@au1501230973hk1501230973
Lawrence Technological University (MI)
 
Ying Huang
ude.u1501230973sdn@g1501230973nauh.1501230973gniy1501230973
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Charles Hunt
ude.u1501230973sn@tn1501230973uhrc1501230973
Norfolk State University (VA)
 
Dave Hunter
ude.u1501230973iw@re1501230973tnuH-1501230973DG1501230973
Western Illinois University (IL)
 
Christian Hyeng
ude.t1501230973acn@g1501230973neyhb1501230973c1501230973
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Pete Hylton
ude.i1501230973upui@1501230973notly1501230973hp1501230973
Indiana University Purdue (IN)
 
Ghassan Ibrahim
ude.u1501230973moolb1501230973@miha1501230973rbig1501230973
Bloomsburg University (PA)
 
John Irwin
ude.u1501230973tm@ni1501230973wrilj1501230973
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Fawwaz Jabri
moc.o1501230973ohay@15012309737002g1501230973ne_za1501230973waf1501230973
 
Sudershan Jetley
ude.u1501230973sgb@y1501230973eltej1501230973s1501230973
Bowling Green State University (OH)
 
Alex Johnson
ude.d1501230973nu.ss1501230973enisu1501230973b@nos1501230973nhoja1501230973
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Rex Kanu
ude.u1501230973sb@un1501230973akr1501230973
Ball State University (IN)
 
Reza Karim
moc.l1501230973iamto1501230973h@aze1501230973r_k1501230973
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Tolga Kaya
ude.h1501230973cimc@1501230973t2aya1501230973k1501230973
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Satish Ketkar
ude.e1501230973nyaw.1501230973gne@r1501230973aktek1501230973
Wayne State University (MI)
 
Manish Kewalramani
ea.ca1501230973.uda@1501230973inama1501230973rlawe1501230973k.hsi1501230973nam1501230973
Abu Dhabi University (UAE)
 
Tae-Hoon Kim
ude.l1501230973aceud1501230973rup@m1501230973iK.no1501230973oH-ea1501230973T1501230973
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Doug Koch
ude.o1501230973mcu@h1501230973cok1501230973
Southeast Missouri State University (MO)
 
Sally Krijestorac
ude.e1501230973tatsa1501230973notya1501230973d@Sse1501230973jirk1501230973
Daytona State College (FL)
 
Ognjen Kuljaca
rh.ib1501230973rh@ac1501230973ajluk1501230973o1501230973
Brodarski Institute (CROATIA)
 
Chakresh Kumar
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973khser1501230973kahc1501230973
Uttar Pradesh Technological University (INDIA)
 
Sandeep Kumar
ude.u1501230973do@ra1501230973muks1501230973
Old Dominion University (VA)
 
Zaki Kuruppalil
ude.o1501230973iho@l1501230973appur1501230973uk1501230973
Ohio University (OH)
 
Edward Land
ude.i1501230973mhj@21501230973dnale1501230973
Johns Hopkins Medical Institute
 
Ronald Land
ude.u1501230973sp@9l1501230973er1501230973
Penn State University (PA)
 
Jane LeClair
ude.r1501230973oisle1501230973cxe@r1501230973ialce1501230973lj1501230973
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Shiyoung Lee
ude.u1501230973sp@821501230973lus1501230973
Penn State University Berks  (PA)
 
Soo-Yen (Samson) Lee
ude.h1501230973cimc@1501230973s5eel1501230973
Central Michigan University (MI)
 
Chao Li
ude.u1501230973maf@i1501230973l.oah1501230973c1501230973
Florida A&M University (FL)
 
Jimmy Linn
ude.u1501230973ce@JN1501230973NIL1501230973
Eastern Carolina University (NC)
 
Dale Litwhiler
ude.u1501230973sp@re1501230973lihwt1501230973il.el1501230973ad1501230973
Penn State University (PA)
 
Gavin Liu
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973212xg1501230973uil1501230973
University of North Dakota (ND)
 
Peng Liu
moc.l1501230973iamg@150123097359uil1501230973gnep1501230973
Marvell Semiconductor (WA)
 
Yu (Louis) Liu
ude.o1501230973nu.ym1501230973@2uyl1501230973
University of New Orleans (LA)
 
Guohua (Gloria) Ma
ude.t1501230973iw@ga1501230973m1501230973
Wentworth Institute of Technology (MA)
 
Mani Manivannan
moc.p1501230973ura@i1501230973nam.m1501230973
 
G.H. Massiha
ude.a1501230973naisi1501230973uol@91501230973642mh1501230973g1501230973
University of Louisiana (LA)
 
Jim Mayrose
ude.e1501230973tatso1501230973laffu1501230973b@jso1501230973ryam1501230973
Buffalo State College (NY)
 
Thomas McDonald
ude.i1501230973su@dl1501230973anodc1501230973mnt1501230973
University of Southern Indiana (IN)
 
David Melton
ude.u1501230973ie@no1501230973tlemw1501230973d1501230973
Eastern Illinois University (IL)
 
Shokoufeh Mirzaei
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973ieazr1501230973im.he1501230973fuoko1501230973hs1501230973
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona (CA)
 
Bashir Morshed
ude.s1501230973ihpme1501230973m@deh1501230973sromb1501230973
University of Memphis (TN)
 
Sam Mryyan
moc.o1501230973ohay@1501230973nayyr1501230973m_S1501230973
Excelsior College (NY)
 
Jessica Murphy
ude.s1501230973musj@1501230973yhpru1501230973m.l.a1501230973cisse1501230973j1501230973
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Wilson Naik
ni.te1501230973nre.d1501230973yhou@1501230973sckia1501230973n1501230973
University of Hyderabad (INDIA)
 
Arun Nambiar
ude.o1501230973nserf1501230973usc@r1501230973aibma1501230973na1501230973
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Anand Nayyar
ni.oc1501230973.ooha1501230973y@ray1501230973yan_d1501230973nana1501230973
Institute for Management & Technology, Jalandhar (INDIA)
 
Stephanie Nelson
ude.a1501230973letat1501230973slac.1501230973egnah1501230973cxe@n1501230973oslen1501230973s1501230973
California State University LA (CA)
 
Hamed Niroumand
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973hdnam1501230973uorin1501230973
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (MALAYSIA)
 
Aurenice Oliveira
ude.u1501230973tm@ar1501230973ievil1501230973o1501230973
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Troy Ollison
ude.o1501230973mcu@n1501230973osill1501230973o1501230973
University of Central Missouri  (MO)
 
Landon Onyebueke
ude.e1501230973tatsn1501230973t@eke1501230973ubeyn1501230973ol1501230973
Tennessee State University (TN)
 
Reynaldo M Pablo Jr.
ude.w1501230973fpi@r1501230973olbap1501230973
Indiana University-Purdue University (IN)
 
Basile Panoutsopoulos
ten.n1501230973ozire1501230973v@sol1501230973uopos1501230973tuona1501230973p.eli1501230973sab1501230973
Community College of Rhode Island (RI)
 
Shahera Patel
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973nivah1501230973bimaw1501230973s1501230973
Sardar Patel University (INDIA)
 
Jose Pena
ude.l1501230973aceud1501230973rup@j1501230973anep1501230973
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Karl Perusich
ude.e1501230973udrup1501230973@hcis1501230973urep1501230973
Purdue University (IN)
 
Thongchai Phairoh
ude.u1501230973sv@ho1501230973riahp1501230973t1501230973
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Huyu Qu
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973UYUHU1501230973Q1501230973
Honeywell Corporation
 
John Rajadas
ude.u1501230973sa@sa1501230973dajar1501230973
Arizona State University (AZ)
 
Harini Ramaprasad
ude.u1501230973is@ri1501230973nirah1501230973
Southern Illinois University Carbondale (IL)
 
Vijaya Ramnath
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973bhtan1501230973maray1501230973ajiv1501230973
Sri Sairam Engineering College (CHENNAI)
 
Desire Rasolomampionona
lp.ud1501230973e.wp@1501230973osard1501230973
Warsaw University of Technology (POLAND)
 
Mohammad Razani
udE.y1501230973nuC.h1501230973ceTyt1501230973iC@in1501230973azarm1501230973
NYC College of Technology (NY)
 
Sangram Redkar
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973rakde1501230973rss1501230973
Arizona State University Polytechnic (AZ)
 
Michael Reynolds
ude.s1501230973fau@s1501230973dlony1501230973er.le1501230973ahcim1501230973
University of Arkansas Fort Smith (AR)
 
Nina Robson
ude.n1501230973otrel1501230973luf.e1501230973gnahc1501230973xe@no1501230973sborn1501230973
California State University Fullerton (CA)
 
Marla Rogers
moc.l1501230973iamg@15012309732130s1501230973regor1501230973m1501230973
Wireless Systems Engineer
 
Dale Rowe
ude.u1501230973yb@ew1501230973or_el1501230973ad1501230973
Brigham Young University (UT)
 
Anca Sala
ude.r1501230973ekab@1501230973alas.1501230973acna1501230973
Baker College (MI)
 
Alex Sergeyev
ude.u1501230973tm@eu1501230973gresv1501230973a1501230973
Michigan Technological University (MI)
 
Balaji Sethuramasamyraja
ude.o1501230973nserf1501230973usc@s1501230973ijala1501230973b1501230973
California State University Fresno (CA)
 
Mehdi Shabaninejad
moc.l1501230973iamg@15012309733801n1501230973hsm1501230973
Zagros Oil & Gas Company (IRAN)
 
Hiral Shah
ude.e1501230973tatsd1501230973uolct1501230973s@hah1501230973sah1501230973
St. Cloud State University (MN)
 
Ehsan Sheybani
ude.u1501230973sv@in1501230973abyeh1501230973se1501230973
Virginia State University (VA)
 
Musibau Shofoluwe
ude.t1501230973acn@s1501230973uabis1501230973um1501230973
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Siles Singh
ni.oc1501230973.ooha1501230973y@ala1501230973b_hgn1501230973is1501230973
St. Joseph University, Tanzania (AFRICA)
 
Ahmad Sleiti
moc.o1501230973ohay@1501230973ytiel1501230973sha1501230973
University of North Carolina Charlotte (NC)
 
Amit Solanki
moc.l1501230973iamg@15012309739324t1501230973imaik1501230973nalos1501230973
C.U. Shah University (INDIA)
 
Jiahui Song
ude.t1501230973iw@jg1501230973nos1501230973
Wentworth Institute Technology (MA)
 
Yuyang Song
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973rotan1501230973egnos1501230973yy1501230973
Toyota
 
Carl Spezia
ude.u1501230973is@yu1501230973grewo1501230973p1501230973
Southern Illinois University (IL)
 
Michelle Surerus
ude.o1501230973iho@s1501230973ureru1501230973s1501230973
Ohio University (OH)
 
Jalal Taheri
moc.o1501230973ohay@1501230973j_ire1501230973hat1501230973
Bostan Abad Islamic Azad University (IRAN)
 
Li Tan
ude.c1501230973np@na1501230973tehzi1501230973l1501230973
Purdue University North Central (IN)
 
Sanjay Tewari
ude.h1501230973cetal1501230973@iraw1501230973ets1501230973
Louisiana Technological University (LA)
 
Li-Shiang Tsay
ude.t1501230973acn@y1501230973astl1501230973
North Carolina A&T State University (NC)
 
Vassilios Tzouanas
ude.d1501230973hu@vs1501230973anauo1501230973zt1501230973
University of Houston-Downtown (TX)
 
Jeff Ulmer
ude.o1501230973mcu@r1501230973emluj1501230973
University of Central Missouri (MO)
 
Amiy Varma
ude.u1501230973sdn@a1501230973mrav.1501230973yima1501230973
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Mihaela Vorvoreanu
ude.e1501230973udrup1501230973@alea1501230973him1501230973
Purdue University (IN)
 
Phillip Waldrop
ude.n1501230973rehtu1501230973osaig1501230973roeg@1501230973pordl1501230973awp1501230973
Georgia Southern University (GA)
 
Abram Walton
moc.l1501230973iamg@1501230973notla1501230973w.mar1501230973ba.fo1501230973rP1501230973
University of South Florida Polytechnic (FL)
 
Haoyu Wang
ude.u1501230973scc.l1501230973iam@o1501230973ahgna1501230973w1501230973
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Jyhwen Wang
ude.u1501230973mat@g1501230973nawJ1501230973
Texas A&M University (TX)
 
Liangmo Wang
nc.ud1501230973e.tsu1501230973jn.li1501230973am@om1501230973gnail1501230973
Nanjing University of Science & Technology (CHINA)
 
Tom Warms
ude.u1501230973sp@sm1501230973rawmo1501230973t1501230973
Penn State University (PA)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1501230973.ut.r1501230973gne@n1501230973oobw1501230973
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Jonathan Williams
ude.c1501230973el@2s1501230973maill1501230973iwj1501230973
Lake Erie College (OH)
 
Boonsap Witchayangkoon
ht.ca1501230973.ut.r1501230973gne@n1501230973oobw1501230973
Thammasat University (THAILAND)
 
Alex Wong
moc.c1501230973nitne1501230973ligid1501230973@gnow1501230973a1501230973
Digilent, Inc.
 
Shuju Wu
ude.u1501230973scc@u1501230973ws1501230973
Central Connecticut State University (CT)
 
Baijian (Justin) Yang
ude.e1501230973udrup1501230973@gnay1501230973b1501230973
Purdue University (IN)
 
Mijia Yang
ude.u1501230973sdn@g1501230973nay.a1501230973ijim1501230973
North Dakota State University (ND)
 
Xiaoli (Lucy) Yang
ude.l1501230973aceud1501230973rup@x1501230973gnay1501230973
Purdue University Calumet (IN)
 
Faruk Yildiz
UDE.U1501230973SHS@1150123097300yxf1501230973
Sam Houston State University (TX)
 
Yuqiu You
ude.t1501230973s-dae1501230973herom1501230973@uoy.1501230973uy1501230973
Morehead State University (KY)
 
Pao-Chiang Yuan
ude.s1501230973musj@1501230973nauy.1501230973gnaih1501230973c-oap1501230973
Jackson State University (MS)
 
Biao Zhang
moc.b1501230973ba.su1501230973@gnah1501230973z.oai1501230973b1501230973
U.S. Corporate Research Center, ABB, Inc.
 
Jinwen Zhu
ude.n1501230973retse1501230973wiruo1501230973ssim@1501230973uhzj1501230973
Missouri Western State University (MO)